THE MASSAGE APPROACH OF AVICENNA IN THE CANON OF MEDICINE
Massage is the manipulation of body tissues by techniques such as rubbing, kneading, pressing and rolling to sustain a state of health and wellness. Massage is one of the oldest and most natural healing applications of human history. Avicenna (980 – 1037) gained a very important position in the medical world with his most important work the Canon of Medicine known as the holy book of medicine in the Western world. . Types of massage were defined in the book. These were hard friction that braces the body, soft friction that relaxes the body, repeated friction that reduces the amount of fat in the body, moderately hard friction that improves the body, rough friction that leads the blood to the surface rapidly, gentle friction that increases blood flow in the application area, preparatory friction that prepares the body before exercise, and restorative friction that is applied after exercise which alleviates exhaustion. It may be seen that Avicenna, whose work shows influence of Greek and Roman physicians, was influenced heavily by Hippocrates and Galen. It is seen that the massage techniques and effect mechanisms defined by Avicenna about a thousand years ago have contributed a lot to developments in massage through the historical process.